A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), As temperatures warm, the sea level rises, submerging the Bering land bridge and isolating the Siberian immigrants as the aboriginal Americans, Go to Bering land bridge in ), The independence of Argentina is formally proclaimed, dropping any pretence of remaining loyal to the Spanish king, San Martín and O'Higgins lead an army through the Andes into Chile and capture Santiago, Go to O'Higgins, Bernardo in These people become known as the Khoikhoi. The Panama Canal: Modern Maritime Trade Route. ), Topa succeeds his father, Pachacuti, as emperor of the Incas, The Inca empire is extended to the north and a second capital is established at Quito, Go to Quito (Ecuador) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), Alfredo Stroessner seizes power in Paraguay, introducing three decades of repressive dictatorship, Go to Stroessner, Alfredo (3 Nov. 1912) in ), The independence of Uruguay is agreed in the Treaty of Montevideo between Brazil and Argentina, Go to Uruguay in ), Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara is captured and executed in Bolivia, Catholic bishops in Latin America, plagued by oppressive regimes, develop the concept of liberation theology, Go to liberation theology in ), The 77-year-old Juan Perón, after returning to Argentina, is once again elected president, Chilean president Salvador Allende dies in the Chilean capital, Santiago, in a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet, Augusto Pinochet takes sole power in Chile, at the head of a junta which governs with extreme brutality, Isabel Perón becomes president of Argentina on the death of her husband Juan Perón, Go to Perón, Isabel (b. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (1 ed. Historians have rejected Menzies' theories and assertions a... Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. Moreover, he w... Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed. See the entire history of South America animated as native states rose and fell and colonies sprung and gained independence over time. ), In the treaty of Breda, England keeps New Amsterdam and New Netherland, and Holland keeps the English-held territory of Surinam, Go to Anglo‐Dutch Wars in ), The Tupamaros are formed as an urban guerrilla group in Uruguay, Go to Tupamaros in ), The General Assembly of the UN asks Argentina and Britain to enter negotiations on their long-running dispute over the Falklands, Go to Falklands War in Ecuador • World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), The emperor Pedro II frees all the remaining slaves in Brazil without compensating their owners, Go to Pedro II (1812–91) in ), The Venezuelan dictator Marcos Jiménez escapes to the USA with an estimated fortune of $200 million, Go to Venezuela in ), Brazil's first civilian president, Prudente de Morais, is peacefully elected, setting the pattern for the next four decades, Go to Presidente Prudente (São Paulo/Brazil) in PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). c. 12,000 B.C. ), Surinam wins independence from the Dutch, with Johan Ferrier as the first president, Go to Surinam in ), The Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil on the approach of a French army led by Jean-Andoche Junot, Go to John VI (1769–1826) in He had conqured the massive Incan empire in just a few years with his army and the help of some of the Incans rivals. ), Royal-Dutch Shell begins to pump oil in Venezuela, launching the country as a major oil producer, Go to Venezuela in Only Icons, Where → Cities • ), Alberto Fujimori and his newly formed Cambio 90 party win a surprise election victory in Peru, Go to Fujimori, Alberto Kenya (b. ), Rich seams of silver are discovered at Potosi, in modern Bolivia, Go to Potosí in The culture has been identified as one of the earliest divisions of the Stone Age era characterized by tools such as flake tools, microliths, cleavers and bifacial hand axes. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. ), The Spanish, now in sole occupation of the Falkland Islands, call them Las Islas Malvinas, Buenos Aires rather than Asunción is chosen to be capital of the new Spanish viceroyalty of La Plata, Go to Buenos Aires (Argentina) in Bolivia • 2 Oct. 1907) in The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 kilometres (50 mi) between the towns of Nazca and... Rowan Gavin Paton Menzies was a British author and retired submarine lieutenant-commander who has written books promoting claims that the Chinese sailed to America before Columbus. The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed. ), At Huaca Prieta, the earliest known farming community in South America, squash, gourds and chili are cultivated, Go to Saladoid Culture in ), Bolívar resigns as president of Gran Colombia shortly before dying of tuberculosis, Sucre is assassinated on his journey home to Quito from a congress in Bogotá, Diego Portales begins a 30-year spell as Chile's conservative dictator, Panama becomes part of the newly independent republic of Colombia, Go to Panama (and Sri Lanka, USA) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The Spanish recapture Caracas, after which Bolívar moves southwest to advance on Bogotá, now held again by the Spanish, Spanish forces at Rancagua defeat a Chilean army commanded by Bernardo O'Higgins, who escapes across the Andes into Argentina, Go to O'Higgins, Bernardo (1778–1842) in 15 July 1926) in Universe, South America → Argentina • It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamb... Pedrarias Dávila (Pedro Arias de Ávila) y Ortiz de Cota, was a Spanish colonial administrator. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. The lands conquered in the south within Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile would form the province Qullasuyu of the Inca Empire. Papal Bull Inter Caetera and the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493–1494) Many people do not know that … By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed. 2000 B.C. Also see this comparative Ancient America Time Line.. Paleo-Indian. ), The people of Paracas, a coastal region of central Peru, create extremely sophisticated fabrics of woven cotton or vicuña wool, Go to Paracas Culture in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian merchant and cartographer who voyaged to and wrote about the Americas. ), In an Argentinian civil war, Urquiza defeats the dictator Rosas and is subsequently elected president (in 1854), At Pavón the provincial troops of Buenos Aires defeat the Argentinian national army, emphatically demonstrating the power of their city, Go to Buenos Aires in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Simón Bolívar, a young officer in Caracas, takes part in a coup which wins control of Venezuela from the Spanish, Go to Bolívar, Simón in ... South Africa profile - Timeline. ), Tupac Amaru guerrillas take 460 guests hostage at the Japanese ambassador's Christmas party in Lima, Peru, Go to Tupamaros in ), A Chilean poet, Ricardo Reyes, adopts the pen name Pablo Neruda, Go to Neruda, Pablo (1904–1973) in Teachers & Schools. All Rights Reserved. ), Even the remote city of Machu Picchu, on its peak above the jungle, is built in the massively precise Inca style of masonry, Go to Machu Picchu, Peru in ), After a decisive victory over the Chanca people, a young Inca prince seizes the throne in Peru and takes the name Pachacuti, Cuzco, city of the Incas, grows rapidly in power after Pachacuti ('transformer of the earth') becomes emperor, The massive architecture of the Incas, consisting of finely dressed irregular blocks of stone, becomes a feature of Cuzco, The most sacred of the Inca divinities, Punchao, is symbolized by a great golden disc representing the sun, The Chimu empire in Peru is conquered by the Incas under the leadership of Pachacuti's son Topa, Go to Topa Inca (1493) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. The latest political news and analysis from the campaign trail: Ben Kamisar WASHINGTON — When Iowa's State Canvassing Board certified its 2020 election results on … A Dictionary of Business and Management (5 ed. ), Rival Dutch, English and French colonies are established in Guiana, the northeast coast of south America, Go to Guiana in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. Geography was a key in the colonization of South America. Brazil • ), The inhabitants of Huaca Prieta grow cotton, from which they weave a coarse cloth, Go to cotton in →  From Past Asian migrants cross Bering Land bridge and enter North America. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. ), José Gervasio Artigas lays siege to the Spanish forces in Montevideo, beginning Uruguay's long struggle for independence, Go to Artigas, José Gervasio (1764–1850) in Most of it is in the Southern Hemisphere. Europe • ), The citizens of Bogotá declare the independence of the province of Colombia, The colonists of Paraguay throw out their Spanish governor and declare independence, Go to Paraguay in 25 Nov. 1915) in ), Senior officers in Brazil seize power, alleging the threat of an imminent communist takeover, Go to Brazil in ), Pablo Escobar, leader of the Medellin drugs cartel in Colombia, is cornered and shot, Go to Medellín in 500 - The San people of South Africa begin to form larger tribes and herd livestock. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. He led the first great Spanish expedition in the New World. ), November 1 - Maximilian von Spee sinks two British cruisers off Coronel, on the Pacific coast of south America, Go to Coronel, battle of (1914) in ), The election of Hipolito Irigoyen as president begins sixteen years of radical government in Argentina, Go to Irigoyen, Hipólito (1850–1933) in 250 - The Bantu people begin to migrate into South … A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Buenos Aires is finally accepted as the permanent capital city of Argentina, The War of the Pacific brings Chile new mineral wealth at the expense of Bolivia and Peru, Go to War of the Pacific in ), On Topa's death his son Huayna Capac succeeds to the throne as Inca emperor, In negotiations about the New World at Tordesillas, the king of Portugal insists on a new demarcation line which later brings him Brazil, Go to Tordesillas, Treaty of (7 June 1494) in ), Pablo Neruda increases his international reputation with a collection of surrealist poems, Residencia en la tierra ('Residence on earth'), A truce ends armed hostilities in the three-year Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay, Argentinian author Jorge Luis Borges publishes A Universal History of Infamy, one of the first examples of magic realism, Go to magic realism in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), 5000 Argentinian troops land in the Falkland Islands, provoking war with Britain, Go to Falklands (Malvinas) War (1982) in 6500-5000 B.C. Despite vast natural resources, including land and oil, many countries continue to struggle with the social consequences of widespread poverty. ), The Inca empire has about 25,000 miles of well-serviced roads, designed for caravans of llamas, In Cuzco's great temple, the sacrifices are usually of llamas, occasionally of humans, Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci sets sail from Lisbon to explore to the south of the New World, Go to Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512) in ), Francisco Pizarro sails from Panama to attempt the conquest of Peru, Go to Pizarro, Francisco (c. 1478–1541) in ), The lost Inca city of Machu Picchu is reached by US archaeologist Hiram Bingham, Go to Bingham, Hiram (1875–1956) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. Many rural laborers moved to the cities to search for jobs. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. World • The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), The Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral makes her name with her first collection, Sonetos de la muerte, Go to Mistral, Gabriela (1889–1957) in He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), Paraguayan dictator Alfredo Stroessner is toppled by Andrés Rodríguez, who restores democracy to the country, Carlos Menem is elected president of Argentina and introduces a free market economy, Go to Menem, Carlos Saul (2 July 1930) in You could not be signed in, please check and try again. ), The capital of the Portuguese colony of Brazil is moved from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro, Go to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in ), The first conference of American nations, in Washington, D.C., launches the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (later called the Pan-American Union), Go to Pan American Union. 1497 July. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), Augusto Pinochet, the only candidate in Chile's presidential election, resigns when he wins less than half the votes cast, Go to Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (23 Nov. 1915) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. South America's population increased rapidly during the 1950's and 1960's. ), A military coup in Argentina brings to an end the two-year presidency of Juan Perón's widow, Isabelita, Shining Path and Tupac Amaru emerge as left-wing guerrilla groups in Peru, Go to Sendero Luminoso in The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), Heitor Villa-Lobos composes the first of his Bachianas Brasileiras, Go to Villa-Lobos, Heitor (1887–1959) in ), Medicine men in Peru practise trephination, cutting holes in the skulls of brave or foolhardy patients, Go to Disease in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Students. Latin America: c. 5000 BCE - 2010 - Oxford Reference. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Salvador Allende, heading a Socialist and Marxist coalition, is elected president in Chile, Go to Allende, Salvador (b. ), The country's president, Getúlio Vargas, commits suicide when the army in Brazil demands his resignation, A military uprising in Argentina forces Perón to resign and go into exile, Oscar Niemeyer is appointed chief architect for his country's new capital, Brasilia, Go to Niemeyer, Oscar (1907– ) in South Africa Timeline BCE. ), Francia becomes dictator of Paraguay and for the next 26 years seals his nation off from the rest of the world, Go to Francia, José Gaspar Rodriguez de (1776–1840) in 400 years since slavery: a timeline of American history A group of African American slaves at the Cassina Point plantation of James Hopkinson on Edisto Island, South Carolina. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. ), With the fall of Pinochet, Chile returns eagerly to democracy - electing a Christian Democrat, Patricio Aylwin, as president, Go to Chile in ), Eva Perón dies of cancer and achieves the status of a popular saint in Argentina, Go to Perón, Eva (1919–1952) in A French expedition from St Malo, founding a colony on East Falkland, name the islands, The Spanish, now in sole occupation of the Falkland Islands, call them, The newly independent republic of Argentina takes possession of. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), The Creole militia of Buenos Aires drive out an English force which has captured the city, Go to Beresford, Gen William Carr (1764–1854) in ), The Inca ethnic group migrates into the region of the Cuzco valley in Peru, Go to Inca in ), Upper Peru declares independence as the republic of Bolivia, in honour of Simón Bolívar, Pedro I, emperor of Brazil, inherits the throne of Portugal (as Pedro IV) but continues to rule from Brazil, Lavalleja defeats a Brazilian army at Ituzaingó, in the decisive battle for Uruguayan independence, Conservative 'bigwigs' and liberal 'novices' emerge as Chile's two main political parties, Go to Chile in ), The city of Tiwanaku develops to the south of Lake Titicaca, and soon dominates the surrounding region, Go to Tiahuanaco, Bolivia in Carvajal's career as... Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Commonly referred to as part of the Americas, like North America, South America is named afte... 1580 BC 15 July 1926), Fujimori, Alberto Kenya (b. Migrants have made their way all the way to Chile. In 950 AD, people were captured in South Africa and were taken to South America and established a transatlantic slavery pattern. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), A mass demonstration by trade unions in Buenos Aires results in the release of Perón, Perón, with the orchestrated support of gangs of thugs, is elected president of Argentina, Go to Perón, Juan (b. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. Help ... liberators Simon de Bolivar and José de San Martín complete the South American independence movement. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. In the decades following European contact, disease, enslavement and land seizure destroyed the advanced civilizations of the continent, both in the Andes and the Amazon regions, sending the surviving inhabitants back to a far simpler social organization. A Guide to Countries of the World (3 ed. ), The Portuguese expel the Jesuits from Brazil, beginning a widespread reaction against the order in Catholic Europe, Go to Jesuits in Rivers & Oceans • “In many South American countries, the twentieth century is characterized by political instability and repression under dictatorial regimes. ), The potato is cultivated in the Peruvian Andes, Go to potato in ), The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes his epic account of South America and its people, Canto general, The Batllistas, followers in Uruguay of José Batlle, attempt an unusual experiment in the reform of government, Go to Uruguay in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), After a public meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentinians set up an autonomous local government in opposition to Spanish forces, Go to Spanish–South American Wars of Independence (1810–25) in 1535 — 1537 Expedition to Chile of the Spanish conqueror Diego de Almagro. ), Brazil becomes a Portuguese royal province, under the control of a governor general, Go to Brazil (and USA) in Olmecs in Mexico. Cabral conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Port... China Discovered the World, 1421 Gavin Menzies, Francisco de Carvajal, Demon of the Andes. Throughout South America's early history of human inhabitants, it was widely an agrarian society, meaning that its residents survived off of the land, using staples such as fish and beans for food. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed. ), An underground railway opens in Buenos Aires, the first subway in Latin America, Go to Buenos Aires in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Grant moves south in a hard-fought campaign to pin down Lee's Confederate army at Petersburg, near Richmond, Go to Wilderness to Petersburg Campaign in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. America • ), President Salvador Allende appoints Augusto Pinochet commander-in-chief of the Chilean army and brings him into the cabinet, Go to Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (b. Colombia • A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. (1565) 1600. ), Coffee replaces sugar as Brazil's main crop, accounting for more than 50% of exports in 1908, Go to cash crop in The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. 25 Nov. 1915), Galtieri, Leopold Fortunato (b. ), The peace of Buenos Aires, ending the Chaco War, gives Paraguay most of the region under dispute with Bolivia, December 13 - the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled after a battle with Allied ships near the river Plate, Go to Plate, Battle of the River (13 December 1939) in
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